What are Chelated Minerals?

CMI Laboratories
The word chelate comes from the Greek word "chele", which means claw. Chelated minerals refer to a molecular reaction or binding process that occurs between a nutritional mineral and the protein source (the ligand). This binding process forms a ring structure, sharing electrons between the mineral and the ligand, making the mineral compound more stable for greater nutritional utilization and absorption in the body. Examples of naturally occurring chelates are iron in hemoglobin and magnesium in chlorophyll.

Why Should I Take Chelated Minerals?

Advantages of Chelated Mineral Supplements
(1) Better NutritionMinerals are catalysts for every enzyme in the human body. Our bodies need several different minerals for essential human nutrition. Deficiencies and imbalances can lead to serious health conditions. Ideally, we should absorb most minerals through our food. However, the modern diet is deficient in mineral nutrition. Food that is highly processed and exposed to contaminants limits nutritional quality. Additional minerals are needed to restore optimal levels of minerals in the body.

(2) Greater BioavailabilityDietary minerals are often obtained from inorganic sources or mineral salts. Unfortunately, inorganic sources are poorly assimilated and/or ionize easily, yielding low bioavailability. ie. Baker- found manganese sulfate (32.5% elemental Mn) in corn/soy diet had 1-6% bioavailability, providing only 2% of the manganese to be utilized. Minerals found in food are bound to proteins. In a similar fashion, amino acids are protected bythe ring structure in a mineral chelate. This protects the mineral as it passes through the acidity of the digestive system to make the mineral more bioavailable.

University of Florida studies indicate that chelated minerals have more bioavailability and absorption than inorganic minerals. Our product’s bioavailability was statistically more significant than seven competitors.

(3) Increased StabilityChelated minerals, because of their protective ring structure, have the ability to avoid inhibition such as oxidation-reduction reactions when mixed with fat soluble vitamins. The ring structure also enables the mineral to avoid antagonism with other minerals.

(4) ResearchOur research is based on published university and industry studies that have analyzed the bioavailability of our original patented chelates (AAFCO definition for chelates in agriculture, Metal Proteinates).

What are Chelated Minerals?

  • E. Howard Kratzer and Pram Vohra, "Chelates in Nutrition," CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton Fl, (1986).
  • Raul A Wapnir, "Protein Nutrition and Mineral Absorption," CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton Fl, (1990).
  • Clinical characteristics and relative bioavailability of supplemental organic zinc sources for poultry and ruminants, J. Cao, University of Florida, Gainesville, J. Anim. Sci. 2000. 78:2039-2054
  • Bioavailability and Antagonists of Trace Minerals in Ruminant Metabolism, Ledoux and Shannon, 16th Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symposium, 2008
  • Relative bioavailability of organic zinc sources based on tissue zinc and metallothionein in chicks fed conventional dietary zinc concentrations, Cao-J., University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.
  • Organic trace metal assays developing standards to evaluate complex 'organic minerals', Gill, Feed International, October 1997.
  • Reduced in vitro Rumen Degradation Keylated Zinc and Manganese and Increased Retention of Keylated Zinc in Lambs. (Kerley and Lardy) University of Missouri.
  • Uptake of Zinc from Keylated Zinc Proteinate or Zinc Sulfate by Rumianal Epithelium Cells. Wright and Spears, NC State University.
  • The effects of Feeding Chelated Metal Proteinates on Reproductive Performance of First Calf Pregnant Heifers (Hardcastle), Utah State University.
  • Supplementation of Copper as Copper Sulfate or Copper Proteinate for Growing Calves Fed Forges Containing Molybdenum (Kincaid), Washington State University.
  • Evaluation of CMC Keylated Cu,Mn & Zn, for lactating Dairy Cows (Holden,1996), Penn State University.
  • Effect of Zinc Proteinate on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Angus Steers (Spears) J. Animal Science, 2002.
  • Bioavailability of Copper Proteinate and Copper Carbonate relative to Copper Sulfate in Cattle, (Spears and Ward), J. Animal Science
  • Influence of Dietary Phosphorus and Trace Mineral Proteinates on Growth and Reproduction in Beef Cattle (Spears), North Carolina State University.
  • Effects of Supplemental Keylated Copper Proteinate on Reproductive Performance of Pigs. (Yen) J. Animal Science, 1998, USDA-ARS, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, Nebraska.
  • Proteinate Mineral Supplement for Breeding Beef Cows (Spears), Professional Animal Scientist, North Carolina State University.
  • Keylated Zinc, Manganese, Iron and Copper for Starting Broilers (Dr. Robert Tetter) Oklahoma State University.
  • Replacing Inorganic Trace Minerals with Keylated Metal Proteinates and Ascites Mortality (Dr. Robert Teeter) Oklahoma State University.
  • Feeding 100 ppm of Keylated Magnesium Proteinate to Heat Stressed Broilers (Dr. Robert Teeter), Oklahoma State University.
  • Effect of a Chelated Calcium Proteinate Dietary Supplement , On the Reproductive Performance of Large White Turkey Breeder Hens., J. Grimes, North Carolina State University.
  • Feeding Inorganic or Keylated Trace Minerals to Catfish Fingerlings (Mississippi Delta Research Station).

Full references are available upon request.

How is Biokey® different from other chelated mineral supplements?

The Biokey® line of amino acid chelates is a premium line of chelated products. Chelated minerals' quality is determined by the degree and integrity of the bond between a nutritional mineral and molecule. Our Biokey® product line has one elemental value per mineral that is consistent with a mineral to ligand ratio for optimum chelation. Biokey® Amino Acid Chelates provides a multiple amino acid chelate specifically formulated for each mineral's properties, supplying maximum binding and bioavailability of the mineral. University data supports the use of multiple ligand chelates by showing greater bioavailability in various studies.